Moraxella catarrhalis is an important cause of lower respiratory tract infections particularly in adults with COPD. In immunocompromised hosts, it causes pneumonia, endocarditis and septicemia. Bordetella is the causative agent of whooping cough affecting mainly children less than one year age. Haemophilus influenzae Type B causes pneumonia, cellulitis, osteomyelitis and arthritis. Influenza C viruses cause mild upper respiratory tract illness. Lower respiratory tract complications are rare.