Epilepsy is a neurological disorder in which brain activity becomes abnormal, causing seizures or periods of unusual behavior, sensations and sometimes loss of awareness. It refers to a clinical phenomenon rather than a single disease entity and can run in families. Some people with epilepsy simply stare blankly for a few seconds during a seizure, while others repeatedly twitch their arms or legs. At least two unprovoked seizures are generally required for a diagnosis of epilepsy. Mutations in certain genes have been identified as a cause of brain malformations which can lead to epilepsy. Many inherited epilepsies are due to mutations affecting the ion channel function. Early childhood epilepsy is due to De novo mutations .