Chromosome analysis helps in the diagnosis of a wide variety of congenital conditions. It helps in the identification of congenital chromosome abnormalities like Aneuploidy (Trisomy / Monosomy) & structural chromosome abnormalities. Testing for Phospholipid antibodies is indicated in cases of unexplained arterial / venous thrombosis, pregnancy with unexplained fetal deaths, spontaneous abortions, presence of unexplained cutaneous circulatory disturbance like Livido reticularis and presence of Systemic rheumatic disease like LE. This test is also used in cases of unexplained thrombocytopenia, Hemolytic anemia & Non-bacterial thrombotic endocarditis. Lupus Anticoagulants are heterogenous IgG or IgM autoantibodies which interfere with phospholipid dependent in vitro coagulation tests, particularly Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time (APTT). These antibodies are associated with thrombosis (arterial & venous), recurrent abortions, neurological & neuropsychiatric disorders. Cardiolipin antibodies are useful in identifying patients with an increased risk of thrombosis, recurrent spontaneous abortions and phospholipid antibody syndrome. Cardiolipin antibody may be elevated in patients with SLE and related autoimmune disorders. Anti Beta 2 Glycoprotein 1 (Beta 2GP1) antibodies are independent risk factor for thrombosis in autoimmune diseases and complications of pregnancy. Presence of these antibodies can also be helpful in the diagnosis of Antiphospholipid syndrome.