Anemia of Chronic Disease (ACD) and Iron Deficiency Anemia (IDA) are the most prevalent form of anemia and often occurs concurrently. Patients with IDA and concurrent inflammation presents a diagnostic dilemma. IDA and ACD are differentiated primarily by estimates of iron status such as ferritin, serum iron, Total iron binding capacity and transferrin saturation. However, these tests are directly affected by chronic disease leading to equivocal results, hindering clinical interpretation. Ferritin levels are typically reduced in IDA but may be increased by acute phase responses in ACD. Soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) levels are not affected by inflammation and are typically elevated in IDA. Using all the three (ferritin, sTfR and sTfR index) parameters in combination doubles the detection of IDA from 41% (ferritin alone) to 92%.