What is Cervical cancer

Cervical cancer begins in the cells of the cervix - the lower part of the uterus that connects to the vagina. Various strains of the Human Papilloma Virus (HPV), a sexually transmitted infection, play a major role in causing cervical cancer. When exposed to HPV, a woman's immune system typically prevents the virus from doing harm. In a small group of women, however, the virus survives for years, contributing to the process that causes some cells on the surface of the cervix to become cancer cells.

    Incidence & Epidemiology
  • More women in India die from cervical cancer than in any other country.
  • The incidence of cervical cancer is higher in rural areas as compared to cities
  • Around 1.23 lakh new women are diagnosed with cervical cancer in India and 67,500 women die of it every year


  • Vaginal bleeding after intercourse, between periods or after menopause
  • Watery, bloody vaginal discharge that may be heavy and have a foul odor
  • Pelvic pain or pain during intercourse
Main types of Cervical Cancer
  • Squamous cell carcinoma
    This type of cervical cancer begins in the thin, flat cells (squamous cells) lining the outer part of the cervix, which projects into the vagina. Most cervical cancers are Squamous cell carcinomas.
  • Adenocarcinomas
    This type of cervical cancer begins in the column-shaped glandular cells that line the cervical canal.

Risk Factors

  • Persistent infection of the cervix with Human Papillomavirus (HPV)
  • Giving birth to many children increases the risk of HPV
  • Many sexual partners increases chance of acquiring HPV.
  • Smoking is associated with squamous cell cervical cancer.
  • Having other sexually transmitted infections (STIs)
  • Smoking is associated with squamous cell cervical cancer.
  • Oropharyngeal squamous carcinoma (OSCC)
  • Sexual exposure early in life

Diagnosis and Screening

  • Screning for Cervical Cancer
    • Pap Test
    • HPV DNA Test
  • Diagnosis for Cervical Cancer
    • coloposcopic examination
    • biopsy
  • Imaging Tests
    Help to determine whether cancer has spread beyond cervix:
    • X-Ray
    • CT Scans
    • MRI
    • PET
Stages of cervical cancer
  • 1
    Cancer confined to the cervix
  • 2
    Cancer reached upper portion of vagina
  • 3
    Cancer spread to lower portion of vagina
  • 4
    Cancer spread to nearby organs

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